Describe in bullet-point format how the Ottoman empire became a modern state during the era of modern reforms in the nineteenth century.

Describe in bullet-point format how the Ottoman empire became a modern state during the era of modern reforms in the nineteenth century. Give examples of law, knowledge and education, political authority, and identity we explored in our class lecture. Discuss these various topics in the following headings: “Modern Law,” “Modern Education,” “Modern Political Authority,” and “Modern Identity.” 
2. Consider how the figure of Wasif Jawhariyyeh exemplified the larger modern transformations and cultural currents of late nineteenth century Middle East by focusing on the following topics and questions:

i. Examine in full-sentence format how the career and different occupations of Wasif Jawhariyyeh’s father reflected new modern economic opportunities and modern political changes that were available in a modern era.  

ii. Explain in full-sentence format how Wasif’s education “demonstrates the fluidity of boundaries in Ottoman Jerusalem during Jawhariyyeh’s youth.” (p. 105) For example, discuss his education and the curriculum he studied.  

iii. Explain in full-sentence format the nahda and how Wasif and other artists were influenced by this modern cultural trend.  

iv. Discuss in full-sentence format who comprised the “new Islamic orthodoxy” and provide some examples of how a “new Islamic orthodoxy” reacted to the arrival of modern, Western cultural practices and changes in the Middle East. (p. 107). How did this new Islamic orthodoxy react to the new, more open status of women in society?  

v. In full sentence format discuss the features and composition of the new, modern cities in the Middle East.  

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